Balasore district was part of the ancient Kalinga which later became a territory of Toshala or Utkal, till the death of Mukunda Dev. It was annexed by Moghuls in 1568 and remained as a part of their suzerainty up to the middle of eighteenth century, to be precised up to 1750-51.Then the Marahattas occupied this part of Odisha and it became a part of the dominion of the Marahatta Rajas of Nagpur.The East India Company ceded this part through a treaty called treaty of Deogaon in 1803 and it became a part of Bengal Presidency up to 1912.But the first English Settlement came into existence in Balasore region in 1634 while Sahajahan was the emperor at Delhi. The first of English factories was established in this region in 1640.During this period Dutch and Danish settlements were also founded inthis region. Balasore as a separate district was created in October,1828 while it was in the Bengal Presidency.With the creation of Bihar province,Odisha was diverted along with Balasore district from Bengal to Bihar But with the creation of Odisha as a separate State on 1st April,1936 Balasore became an integral part of Odisha State.The national movement of independence surged ahead with the visit of Mahatma Gandhi in 1921. Similarly Praja Andolan was initiated against the ruler of Nilagiri State.The state of Nilagiri merged with state of Odisha in January,1948 and became a part of Balasore district.In 3rd April,1993 Bhadrak Sub-division became a separate district and from this day Balasore remains a district of Odisha with two Sub-divisions namely Balasore and Nilagiri having 7 Tahasils namely Balasore, Soro, Simulia, Nilagiri, Jaleswar, Basta & Baliapal and 12 Blocks namely Bhograi, Jaleswar, Baliapal, Basta, Balasore, Remuna, Nilagiri, Oupada, Khaira, Soro & Bahanaga. The name of the district is being derived from the name of the town, which is old and important. The name Balasore is recognised from the Persian word BALA-E-SHORE which means “TOWN IN THE SEA”. The historical legend ascribes that the district has been named as per the LORD BANESHWAR (LORD SHIVA) of the town., which subsequently changed to Balasore during MUGHUL Rules.
The History of Balasore District is the amalgamation of several cultures and civilizations colonized the region for a couple of years. Balasore was a part of ancient Kalinga, which later came under the jurisdiction of Toshala or Utkal till the death of Mukunda Deva. The history of Balasore witnessed a quick succession of several dynasties in its bosom.n As far as the history of Balasore District is concerned, there was a constant strife among the different rulers over the entire tract of the District.When the power of the indigenous Hindu kings falls short to retain their kingdom with a strong foundation, the Mughals and the realm of Balasore District was passed in the hands of Marhatta Rajas of Nagpur. Finally during the British expedition in India, the absolute political power came in the hands of the British Raj.
The East India Company ceded Balasore District in 1803, through a treaty called as The Treaty of Deogaon and then it became a part of Bengal Presidency up to the year 1912. However, the first English settlement came into existence in Balasore region in 1634, while Sahajahan was the emperor at Delhi and the first of the English factories was established in this region in 1640. During this period, Dutch and Danish settlements were also founded in this region. Balasore, as a separate District was created in October 1828, while it was under Bengal Presidency. With the creation of Odisha as a separate state on 1st April 1936, Balasore became an integral part of Odisha State.
The state of Nilagiri merged with the state of Odisha in January 1948 and then it became a part of Balasore District. On 3 April 1993, Bhadrak sub-division became a separate District and from this day onwards, Balasore remains a district of Odisha with two sub-divisions namely Balasore and Nilagiri.
Balasore also gets its name from the Persian word Bala–e–Shore, meaning ‘Town in the sea’. Historical legend ascribes the naming of this District as per Lord Baneshwar (Lord Shiva) of the town, which subsequently changed to Balasore during the Mughul rule.There are many historical monuments in the Balasore District. Some of the major monuments in Balasore District includes the rich sculptural remains found in Ayodhya. The ruin of the old Buddhist monastery and temple is there in Kupali in Balasore District. Some of the ruined forts at the Jayachandi forests in Raibania are also there in the District. The major religious monument found in the District is the Lord Chandaneswar Shrine.
Balasore is one of the coastal Districts of Odisha. It lies on the northern most part of the state. It was a part of the ancient Kalinga which later became a territory of Toshal or Utkal, till the death of Mukunda Dev. Balasore as a separate District was created in October 1828. originally it was in Bengal presidency.
Balasore District covers an area of 3634 sq kms having total population of 23,17,419 as per 2011 census. The District is surrounded by Medinipur District of West Bengal in its northern side, Bay of Bengal in its east, Bhadrak District in its south and Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar Districts lies on its western side. The District is located at 20.48 to 21.59 North Latitude and 86.16 to 87.29 east Longitude. Total male population of the District is 11,84,371 and female population is 11,33,048 as per 2001 census.
It’s climate is generally hot with high humidity. May is the hottest month and December is the coolest one. Monsoon generally arrives in the district from 14th of June every year. The average rainfall of the District is 1568.4 mm. The rainfall during June to December constitutes at least 75 Percent of the total rainfall that this District experiences and it has an average of 62 rainy days in the year.
This district consists of two subdivisions namely Balasore and Nilagiri. There are 12 Tahasils for 12 Blocks of the district. Balasore is the main town of the district and is also its centre of economic growth. The primary occupation of people in the district is cultivation. This district is mainly known for cultivation of paddy. Because rice is the staple cereal of the local people. Hybrid varieties of seeds are being developed and land reform programs are being planned for the maximum usage of the wastelands, promising to enhance the district’s economic stability in the near future. Industries, Agriculture, Fishing and Tourism are the four major revenue sources of Balasore District. Birla Tyres, Balasore Alloys Limited, Emami Paper Mills Limited and Polar Pharma India Limited are some of the large–scale industries functioning in this district.
Being an agrarian economy, agriculture is the main stay of the people of Balasore District. It is in the coastal section of Odisha blessed with hot and humid cliamte, with alluvium soil and intersected by the perennial rivers, which collectively provides conducive infrastructure for the growth of agriculture in the region. Rice, Pulses, oil seeds like groundnut, mustard, castor and linseed are grown in the District of Balasore.
Education has played an important role here, both before and after Independence. At present many primary and secondary schools imparting education both in English medium and Odia medium. Many degree colleges, law colleges, colleges of education, engineering schools, song and music colleges, art and craft colleges, industrial training institutes, management colleges and computer institutes are found at different places in the district. Fakir Mohan University, a new and progressive university located in Balasore town.
Fakir Mohan Senapati famously known as Vyasa Kabi, Laxmi Narayana Sahu an eminent social worker and writer, Radhanath Ray (the great poet of modern India Literature) and Bagha Jatin who courageously faught against the British rule are the prominent personalities born in Balasore District. Many fairs and festivals celebrated here throughout the year. Main festivals are Durga Puja, Siva Ratri, Raja Parva, Makar Sankranti, Kali Puja, Ganesh Chaturthi, Car festival and Dola Purnima. Balasore District is famous for the most attarctive and enjoyable game, Akhada, played during Durga Puja and during Moharrum by Muslims.
There are beautiful sea beaches and many temples attract local and national tourists. Chandipur, Talasari sea beach, Chawmukh sea beach, Kashaphal sea beach are the famous sea beaches of the District. Temples like Panchalingeswar, Khirochora Gopinath, Langaleswar, Laxmannath, Chandaneswar, Maninageswar are the point of attractions.